Top Ten Ways To Save Money Rehabbing A House

Rehabbing a house can be a very expensive task that can easily get out of hand and over budget. Today more and more people are looking for ways to save money remodeling their home. I’d like to share some of my insight and experience on ways to save money when doing a rehab property or flip piece of real estate.

Here is my list of the top 10 ways to save money Rehabbing / Remodeling a house.
1.Be Your Own General Contractor – Being your own general contractor could save you substantial money. However, I don’t recommend this approach to many people. You really do need some knowledge of the house remodeling industry before you try to take on this large of a task. You must have good negotiation skills, a sense for the construction trades, and an eye for design. If you’re successful at being your own general contractor you could save as much as 5% to 10% on your construction project.
2.Buying the right piece of investment property – can save you money when you begin your remodel project. The type of house you select can be one of the best ways to save money when you invest in real estate. Buying old or out of date construction types can cost you a lot of money because of the investment necessary to bring the property up to code. Choosing a simple rectangular house with simple roof lines and standard windows compared to a complicated geometric house can save you lots of money. Choose nice siding, paint and landscaping instead of an unusual house design.
3.Sweat Equity – There’s no better way to save money than to role up your sleeves and put some sweat equity into the project. Home Improvement and DIY are so popular today that most home owners have tackled a project or two trying to save money. You can take those skills and apply them to your remodel construction project. Most contractors will agree to let you do certain phases of the project if you discuss them before construction begins and identify those items in the contract. If you have certain skills that you feel comfortable with then discuss them with your contractors so you can save some money. I’ll discuss some of the more popular tasks below.
4.Job Site Clean Up – Helping keep the site clean is one of the simplest ways I know how to save money when remodeling a house. Having a clean and orderly job site makes everyone work a little more efficient and careful. Having the sense of an organized job site will ensure your project gets finished sooner with few problems and that means less money from you. Even slight delays in the project can mean substantial interest payments and temporary housing costs.
5.Salvage Materials – Using salvage materials will help you save money and it’s the Green Thing to do. Today there are salvage yards that specialize in recycling building materials. Things such as doors, windows, cabinets, plumbing and electrical fixtures are all available at very discounted prices. You’ll be saving money while helping out the environment so it’s certainly an idea worth considering.
6.Reduced Price Products – Buying floor models, remnants and slightly damaged products is one area that I’ve seen many of our real estate rehabbed save big money. Many building material stores sell discounted projects at huge summer time yard sales. When you’re looking for fixtures make sure to consider about floor models, discontinued models and even damaged products.
7.Painting – Most people that consider themselves DIY’ers have no problem painting. If you paint your remodeling project inside and out you can save $2,000 to $10,000 easily. Painting your rehab house is a project the whole family can help out with. I’ve seen people that have a painting party with family and friends and paint an entire house in one weekend.
8.Flooring – Flooring is another project that I’ve seen customers save a substantial amount of money on. Most types of tile and wood flooring a re easy to install with very little tools. Even if you can’t install the flooring yourself check out sales for discounted materials. You can often find discontinued material and use it to tile the basement or laundry areas.
9.Landscaping – Doing the landscaping yourself can save thousands of dollars. It takes very little skill to do and can save you a ton of money. Bring along friend and family to help. It makes for a great group project. Chances are you’ll save money and do a better job in the process. You can easily plant your own trees, shrubs flowers to save money.
10.Keep It Simple – I have seen too many investors and flippers over build a rehab project and finish it exactly the way that they would want it. The problem is that no two families have the same taste. I have often driven past these homes months later to find the paint a different color, the landscaped ripped out, or even worse, everything is dead. Build the project to meet the standards of the neighborhood and make sure that everything is clean, operational, and that the home is ready to move in. NOTHING MORE. Give them a clean slate to start their new life with in the rehab home you’ve remodeled. You waste a lot of money on things that the new buyer may not like. It is better for you to save that money and offer it to the buyer as an incentive for buying or to help them with closing costs. It will end up making the deal close faster.

Doing any one of these items the next time you build a new house can save you money. The most important advice I can give you is to be speak with your builder openly about these ideas. Tell your builder you’d like to save some money by doing certain tasks yourself. Most builders will be open to this arrangement so long is it’s discussed ahead of time and properly addressed in the contract.

How To Build A Passive House In The Uk

The concept of passive house is getting popularity as more and more people are trying to reduce energy consumption of their house as far as possible. Energy consumption of a room can be slashed down to almost 90% in a passive house, which is something that very few people can afford to ignore. Compared to traditional houses, passive house does not consume huge amount of energy for keeping the temperature of a room stable. You can maximize energy efficiency and minimize energy consumption by transforming your house into a passive house. Previously the technique of passive house was mainly applied to residential buildings, but with the growing consciousness over energy conservation, this technique is now widely implemented in different types of properties such as kindergartens, schools, buildings etc. Besides new buildings, old buildings are also adopting this technique to reduce their monthly electricity bills as much as possible. The demand of energy efficient house is spiraling up continuously as the source of traditional source of energy is fast depleting and as the cost of the traditional source of energy such as gas, oil etc is increasing rapidly. This trend has forced many people to opt for viable alternative. Though the concept of energy efficient house is nothing new, the development of new and sophisticated technology has perfected and refined the concept to some extent. Now, the term passive house does not simply refer to an energy efficient room rather it also encompasses other aspects such as eco-friendly etc.

Not every energy efficient house can be a passive home. Houses should fulfill the following requirements before being touted as passive homes. 120 kWh/m per year is the maximum limit of energy consumption in passive homes. Annual heating demand of a passive home should not be more than 15 kWh/m per year and annual cooling demand should not be more than 4746 btu/ft per year. As technology is slowing making inroads in making homes energy efficient, the cost of building passive homes has decreased to some extent, but still passive homes are a bit expansive than traditional buildings. But given its long term benefits, you can easily overlook this flipside of passive homes. But thanks to new design and the stiff competition in the market, the cost of building passive homes has reduced significantly from the past. Passive homes have a unique advantage over convention buildings. Because of their energy efficiency, passive homes are a big hit among prospective customers in the real estate industry. And therefore, it means if you can get good return from your passive home in time of urgency. Now what’s more do you want from your home?

Passive windows play significant roll in controlling or adjusting the temperature of a room. Passive windows minimize solar gain when it is not required and maximize solar gain when it is required and thereby maintaining an ideal condition in rooms. Passive windows should be made of those materials that meet the requirements of Passive House. Passive windows should be placed in a passive room in such a way that can ensure maximum passive solar gain. By ensuring maximum passive solar gain, passive windows help to reduce energy consumption to a bare minimum. However, when it comes to energy consumption, solar gain stands second to its other advantages. Passive windows are usually manufactured with high R-values that help them to meet the requirements of the Passivhaus standard. Warm edge, low-emissivity coatings, solar heat-gain coefficient etc are some of its unique features that are unlikely to be found in any other types of windows.

Passive houses are mainly heated by passive solar gain, but at the same time, internal heat is also preserved for minimizing energy consumption. Besides controlling the temperature of a room, passive house technique can ensure fresh airflow in a room, which will have an overall positive impact on the environment of the house. Passive house, which has become synonymous with the term “Eco home”, generally, comes with a number of features that are unique of its own. To ensure fresh flow of air, different parameters are tested in an Eco home. Air can become excessively dry or the presence of CO2 in air can increase drastically which can lead to suffocation. In some cases, humidity can take a nosedive and this can make your stay uncomfortable in your home. Interior furnishing often plays a significantly important role in this regard. By incorporating a mechanical venting system in your home’s interior furnishing, you can enhance the overall ambience of your rooms. It is desirable that the change of temperature in an Eco home takes gradually and not abruptly. After switching off heating and ventilation system of your rooms, an Eco home starts losing temperature less than 0.5 C per hour and it gets stabilized when the indoor temperature reaches 15 C. Opening doors or windows of an Eco home has a very insignificant effect on the overall temperature of the room as the temperature normalizes within few seconds.

Installation of solar panels in your passive homes should be done with meticulous care. By installing solar panels, you will be able to reduce electricity bill of your house to a nominal level, which is all the more beneficial for your home in the long run. Solar panels should be installed in a place where they can get direct light of the sun as long as possible because it will help them to generate more solar energy that can be utilized later in myriads of ways. Make sure that the roof of your house is strong enough to give support to the weight of solar panels. If you are not certain about it, it is better to consult with an expert installer before proceeding further with your plan. By installing solar panels in your house, you can help to reduce carbon footprint to some extent. Solar panels do not emit any harmful gas in air and that is why it is extremely environment friendly compared to other alternative sources of energy. Though the initial setup cost of solar panels are extremely high, it can prove extremely cost effective. Another vital benefit of solar panel is that you can store solar power for a rainy day, which is almost impossible in case of traditional source of energy. Maintenance cost of solar panels is minimal. You need to keep them out of harms way as far as possible and they will keep generating power for a long period of time. However, solar panels should be cleaned on periodical basis because if their upper surfaces were not cleaned properly, you would not be able to get their best performance.

Indirapuram- A Lucrative And Viable Real Estate Investment Option

Upsurge In Indirapuram Real Estate

In the present times, real estate of Indirapuram has lured the prominent housing companies like Ashiana, Gaur Builders, Assotech and several others, with an aim to take on high-class construction projects in Indirapuram. Many say that real estate value reflects the development status of any city; the extraordinary increase in real estate and property development in Indirapuram has enabled a swift development of infrastructure and commercial landscape in the area, which otherwise went unnoticed until recently.

Reason For Rise In Property Value

Currently real estate prices in Indirapuram have soared high and it is projected to escalate even further, thus those inclined to make property investment Indirapuram could be a favored hunting ground. The prime factor as to why Indirapuram properties have gained so much positive reception is its enhanced connectivity with the commercial centers in the capital city Delhi, South Delhi and Noida.

Pointers Indicate Investment In Indirapuram Property Is Lucrative Option

An estimated 90 real estate development projects are being carried out, owing to the fast paced construction process 66 projects have been completed and another 24 are under construction. The projected occupancy rate is 72%, totaling up to 26,394 flats approximately, with prices for the apartments ranging between Rs. 1900-4200 per square feet.
Yet another reason why Indirapuram property has got a tremendous boost is that many people are eager to buy / rent property in Ghaziabad region primarily to evade the hassle of paying much high prices in Delhi and also to get pleasure from living away from the chaos and commotion of a metropolitan; yet be residing in close proximity to the National capital for functional benefits.

Undoubtedly Indirapuram real estate have opened gateways for a new lucrative investment alternatives for all who are interested in making profits through real estate, keeping the development of this new trend in view the Ghaziabad Development Authority is also undertaking many important step to further boost the growth of real estate sector in Indirapuram.

Commercial Property Has Also Got A Boost

An interesting development that has taken place in the recent times is the boost that commercial property in Indirapuram has received. This has been triggered with the mushrooming of large number of malls, shopping complexes and multiplexes in and around Indirapuram, thus, alongside residential property commercial property got a platform for development.

Additionally, based on the developments taking place in both residential and commercial real estate of Indirapuram, large number of property dealers, real estate agents and building contractors are finding numerous opportunity to earn handsome revenues, as those who want to invest in property in these areas seek their assistance for carrying out the transactions.

nd Chance Apartments Garland Tx

Due to the economy there is a growing trend of tenants not being able to pay their rent. Which subsequently has created a market for Second Chance Leasing. This is when a apartment allows these rental history problems, usually with a larger deposit involved. The prospects are given the chance to still lease an apartment, and there are some great communities with certain management companies who do allow a second chance.
There are different areas of difficulty in finding an apartment with rental history problems. Among those are three factors involved with evictions and broken leases that will either increase or diminish your selection. First off is how many do you have, less is going to be better. Second, is how old is the rental history problem, the less in age it is, the more difficult it will be to find you a community. From experience, I would say it needs to be at least 6 months old, but the older it is, the more communities you will have to select from. On a side note, if you can get a run of good rental history of at least 6 months then your options will increase greatly. Third and final, is the amount owed on the rental debt. This one two way issue, because in most cases it has made it to your credit report as well and it is decreasing your credit rating. If you owe more than $1500 on a rental debt then it will decrease your selection of apartments. If you can pay off the rental debt, then you will only have the rental history problem to deal with and it is considerably easier to find a nice community.
As an apartment locator, I have noticed a trend of communities allowing some bumps and bruises on rental history. Issues as small as owing a small fee to a community, to as much as a client having 3 evictions. As a tenant you should avoid breaking a lease if at all possible, because unlike credit history which clears after 7 years. A rental history problem, like a broken lease or an eviction, can follow you around for over 10 years. Which does decrease the selection of communities you can qualify for. With that being said if you are reading this, you probably already have an issue and are looking for a way to get approved. Well I am here to tell you there is a light on the horizon, and there are great communities that you can get approved at.
With a background, there are a different set of rules that govern the communities, and those have a few factors as well. First is the charge, whether it is a misdemeanor or felony, and what it is related too. The more severe the crime, the less apartments you will have to choose from. The apartments have different rules as to what they can accept. Second is the age of the crime, properties generally want you to be 5 years past the end of your probationary period, but if this is not you, there are properties out there that will take newer. The number of offenses is pretty cut and dry, they will take a couple misdemeanors, but with felonies if there is more than one you are going to have a hard time unless they are real old. Finally, whether it is a misdemeanor or a felony, if it is against a person, i.e sexual, assault, robbery, or worse… There is only one that I know of in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, out of 300,000 communities. I think its best you look in privately owned condos, because they do not check background.

Apartment Security Tips

Many apartment residents do not think much about home security believing that it is only homeowner’s task. Whether it’s your first time living in a large apartment building or you’re quite accustomed to the practice, there are definitely different sorts of home security concerns to address when you’re living in a larger building with lots of other people. First of all, even if you protect everything inside your apartment with a security system you must rely on others to secure the building exterior, grounds and parking areas. Get to know your landlord or building manager and be sure to bring security issues to their attention. The chance of your apartment being burglarized is much greater than living in a house.

The reason why apartments are a common target is that there are so many people are in and out of apartment buildings all the time and it is harder to keep non-residents out. After all, you would notice a stranger but you will not know who should and shouldn’t be walking down a hallway of an apartment building. So what can be done to tackle crime in apartment blocks? Fortunately there are several measures that can be taken to ensure security in your apartment. This article describes the most appropriate action that can be taken to secure apartment.

If burglars do gain entry they are most likely to grab smaller items that they can quickly escape with. Cash is obvious but jewelry, laptop computers, and small electronic appliances or devices are also targeted items that can be quickly sold or pawned. The smartest thing to do is prevent being burglarized in the first place, but you can save yourself a lot of aggravation in the event you are burglarized, by following these steps:

Have your driver’s license number etched or engraved on all valuable items

Photograph valuable items, make a video of your apartment, and keep a record of items including descriptions, makes, models and serial number

Make a copy of everything important in your wallet, as well as other important documents, each year

Once you’ve got your photos and records up to date, keep them in a safe deposit box or other safe place off site. Do not keep them in your apartment.

If you’re walking up to your building late at night , it’s considerably safer for you if you make sure that your keys are in hand, and that you aren’t busy chatting away on your cell phone. A considerable amount of robberies take place when residents aren’t aware of their surroundings, so be sure to stay alert until you are comfortable in your actual apartment, it is a great strategy to keeping your apartment safe and secure.

Farm House As The Main House Of Farm

A farm house is known as the main house of a farm. Basically a farm house was frequently regarded as a typical house built for residual purposes inside a rural or agricultural setting. Usually a farm house contains two stories even though newer buildings are single story.

Such farm houses are acknowledged to be pragmatic and aesthetic although also staying well furnished in terms to serve standard daily necessities. Even though these farm houses emerge as standard homes for farmers and their families, farm house plans around the world reflect otherwise. Numerous farm house plans take the shape with the letter T . The perpendicular of this sort of T shaped farm house plans are called the ell .

Written above farm house plans differ from one the main world to one more. Such varying farm house plans are identified under four standard designs, namely; the Canadian farm house, German farm house and Norwegian farm house.

The Canadian farm house plans are ones that had been of Victorian influence in the 19th century. Traditionally the outer appearance of these sort of farm house plans had been existing utilizing clapboards although later versions comprised of bricks. The German farm house plans comprise of 3 main designs. The very first design staying Niedersachsenhaus or lower German house is one that is certainly of big unit structure using a sweeping roof supported by a amount of rows of internal posts. There also can be a gateway at the gable end leading to a big hall. Furthermore this kind is designed inside a manner to position cattle stalls and barns on either sides with the farm house. The second kind of German farm house plans staying the middle German house was one that was of a single unit with access in the sides using a roof supported by outside walls. Even though the classic design was just one unit, in latter years, the farm house plans had been expanded to a couple of buildings using a second story around the rectangular farmyard. The third design of German farm house plans is named South German house, frequently seen in Southern Germany. This design comprises of two sub farm house plans, namely; Black Forest farmstead and the Bavarian farmstead. Besides Canadian and German farm house plans, Norwegian farm houses had been popular for its use of timber or logs to develop it around a Scandinavian Vernacular Architecture. The history of these farm house plans track back to 1200s -1900s.

On the other hand at existing these classic farm house plans have revolved to portray a idea of pricey housing estates close to your vicinity sides of the uk. This modern elegance on farm house plans are normally experienced by the upper class population who use these luxurious houses as vacation places or merely as locations to getaway from the busy lives of the city.

Understanding Clients Requirements On Real Estate Industry

If you sell real estate, or maybe if you buy real estate, you trust in lenders to produce closings happen. This find one will be pleasant to anyone with a customers, pays awareness to details, and gets closings done on time, you usually go back regularly.

A rehab is where you purchase a run-down building that requires lots of attention. You will then offer necessary hard work. When finished, the property is returned towards market, and also you buy instagram followers produce a tidy profit, mostly within your ‘sweat equity’.

Even further, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac enjoyed access to a special price discount window frame. They would take out loans to the discount window, and then buy up MBSs and CDOs which in fact have a rate plan of return, and a lot more than interest rate gap (Alan Greenspan called it a “Big Fat Gap” of profit). Then they use their profits to lobby Congress and be sure that the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) was practically neutered, thus minimizing regulation and oversight.

Back to our question and analogy. Should you buy instagram followers estate when the bubble might burst? What choice have you? Renters (God Bless them, for they generate landlords rich) without a roof of their own may well have heaven fall upon them. Those home owners with only enough equity to protect the bank, may think the “Sky is Falling” on them, but it’s chicken excrement. Those few with so much equity that may possibly protected of one’s bank may lose cash except they’ll leave it.

Once obtain copies of your credit report from 1 go through each report and search for any mistakes, old accounts, or reports of items that have been cleared higher. The more things that you could easily get removed from your credit report the easier it will be for which get the financing just one or two.

Both may benefit a marketplace investor. Inflation benefits the investor due to the fact investor’s typically invested at today’s dollars and not tomorrow’s. Relatively the investor’s money being in the bank, and losing it’s buying power in order to inflation, it’s in a painful asset, just like a real estate investment.

By buying into the hurry up and purchase strategy, you take the likelihood of buying others in terms of any housing market. This is especially true however when talking about a hot market like Miami Real Home.

Reasons To Choose A House And Land Package

If you’re looking for a builder to build your own dream house or just looking for a choice of house designs, then the house and land packages that are widely available might be right for you. There’s a wide range of house designs you can choose from, and these designs are designed to fit any budget. The house and land package option is the easiest and most hassle-free way of building a new house. Experienced consultants can guide you through the process of selecting designs and plans for the house and also the lot. Be it a narrow lot or different block, the consultants can still create a perfect design out of it.

Buying an existing house can be hassle free, but you can’t be sure if it’s really worth the price that you’re paying for. The builders of these house and land packages meanwhile give you warranties and you can compare the prices also with the different companies. The companies have wide varieties of elegant and stylish house designs, so selecting the right one can be carefully planned. You can also choose packages that are affordable and can easily fit within your budget. Their team of architects and builders, due to their expertise and experiences, can give advice on all the details to guide you in the selection process.

When you have chosen the perfect builder to build your dream house, you can sit down with their team of consultants to come up with the right designs. These experts will give you advice on the perfect location and design to fit the lot. The team of consultants and experts relies on their skills and training to give you the design that is right for you. The homeowner’s needs and financial capabilities are the primary consideration of these homebuilders.

The down payment or deposit will then be made to your chosen company where you availed the house and land package. The copy of the land title will then be referred for the building plans and drawings. The title indicates the lot bearings and elevations which will be the final basis of the drawings. A site survey and soil testing will be made in order to indicate the site features, levels, and soil classification.

After the soil testing, site survey, and making the final decision on the right design, the building plans should be completed. The drawing will show the floor plans, roof details, electrical and plumbing plans, kitchen and bedrooms layouts, fencing and landscaping which are all included in the house and lot package. Materials and their corresponding costs are also indicated in the plan. After finishing all consultations, a contract will be made for final approval.

After you have affixed your signature on the contract, the builder will complete the final process of your house and lot package. You’ll then be furnished with the application forms for power, water, building permits, etc. Upon the completion of the deposit, all you have to do is wait for everything necessary to build a house. Once they all are done then the builders can start to build the house you’ve always wanted.

Astrology’s Unique House To House System

One of the things I really love about Astrology is how it puts together the puzzle pieces of life. Nowhere is this more clear than in the House to House method of understanding the zodiac chart. In this system, we are able to find the effects of how each house works by imagining it as the first house or Ascendant. Then we count each succeeding house from this.

In other words, to solve a particular problem, we go to the house symbolizing the problem and move it to the Ascendant. The house following this house becomes the second house symbolizing the individual’s values concerning the matters of the house in question. The next house would be the third house in relation to the problem house, or what the individual thinks, learns and communicates about the ‘problem’ house in question. In this way, each house in the horoscope has twelve different perspectives on how any of the matters it concerns can be approached.

To know about a person’s child we would look to their Fifth House. Their Sixth House, would be the Second House from the Fifth and would indicate the value systems of their child. To know how the child gets along with others, we can look at the Eleventh House (which rules friendship) from the Fifth House. This would be the individual’s Fourth House. The sign on the cusp of the house we arrive at, as well as planets in it or aspects to it, will complete the story.

Suppose a Gemini rising individual builds a library of crosswords, romance novels and astrology books. The third house of lower mind describes the crosswords (Leo). The fifth house of romance describes the novels (Libra) and the ninth house of higher learning describes the astrology books (Aquarius). The second house from each anchor house shows its values. Crosswords are valued by the second house from the third, or Fourth House (Virgo) for their intricate words challenging the lower mind. Romances are valued through the sixth house, the second from the fifth (Scorpio) i.e.books with hidden intrigue, sexuality, and difficult plots.

Astrology books are valued through the tenth house, the second from the ninth (Pisces) for evoking intuitive sensory responses that transcend mundane life. If we want to know where in their library the person would put their astrology books, we look at the fourth house (home) from the ninth house (higher mind). An air sign on this house could put the astrology books on higher shelves,- earth signs lower shelves, fire signs near sunlight and water signs near mist. Now where did I put those astrology books?

Things To Consider While Purchasing An Apartment

With shortage of land in big towns and cities, most people choose to live in residential flats or apartments which save space. However, buying a house involves scores of important points which must be thoroughly probed about. There are loads of things which you should consider while going ahead with such a big purchase. Before you go ahead, you should know what you exactly need. Your choice of apartment would reflect your individual style. So, thoroughly consider the type, size and style of apartment you want. Additionally, you should also enquire about the distance between the apartment you are intending to buy and the local facilities like clinics, workplace, schools and local grocery stores.

Finance is yet another factor which has to be thoroughly analyzed while hunting for a suitable apartment. You should evaluate your affordability with the acceptable alterations or changes that you can afford to make in the budget. A well-managed credit from any financial institution also comes handy if you dont want to get overburdened with the debt or meet all your financial needs easily. Another crucial consideration while buying an apartment is to enquire about the local behavioral norms or traditions. The neighborhood where you would be shifting may have some behavioral rules or values on a cooperative basis that they follow in order to maintain peace. Gather good information about those rules so that you can properly follow them after moving in.

Once you gather information about all these details, it would surely lessen the levels of stress which comes along with moving to a new place. If you find it hard to cope with so many challenges pertaining to home buying, you can always seek professional help. Irrespective of the ever-growing access to the home listings provided on the internet, enlisting the services of real estate agents is never a waste of time or money. They would guide you all through the journey of your house hunting.

Apart from assisting you regarding how to go about this whole home buying process, they also offer the hottest options in the apartments. If you are seeking the perfect blend of excellent architecture, matchless style, wonderful locality and affordable rates, imperial apartments would make an apt choice for you. These beautiful apartments are present in Mohali which is one of the most prominent cities of India. The amazing part is that these flats are available in all sizes and price ranges. Thus, no matter what your budget or requirements are, they would successfully end your house hunt without costing you a fortune.